Although many hypotheses have been put forward to explain how the ketogenic diet works, it remains a mystery. Disproven hypotheses include systemic acidosis (high levels of acid in the blood), electrolyte changes and hypoglycaemia (low blood glucose).[19] Although many biochemical changes are known to occur in the brain of a patient on the ketogenic diet, it is not known which of these has an anticonvulsant effect. The lack of understanding in this area is similar to the situation with many anticonvulsant drugs.[56]
I have also been doing 16:8, but not everyday. If You eat too few calories for too long you may lower your basic metabolic rate which you don’t really want to do. I eat something around 10 or 11 in the morning such as 3 deviled eggs, then a decent size meal at about 12:30 and my last meal at about 6. This seems to work well for me. I also use my fitness pal( free app), which is awesome and tracks all your macro ratios. It is important to keep it as Keto as you can. 70%fat, 5%carb, and 25% protein. I found at first that I just wasn’t eating enough fat, and my protein levels were too high. I think most people run into that same trap at first. Good luck!
This week we’re getting stricter with our fasting. We had a full week of intermittent fasting and now we’re going to skip breakfast and lunch. Water is our BEST friend here! Don’t forget that you can drink coffee, tea, flavored water, and the like to get your liquids in. Keep drinking to make sure you’re not thinking about your stomach. It MIGHT start growling, just ignore it – your body will adjust with time.
“Your liver produces ketones all the time, but the rate depends on carbohydrate and protein intake,” says Jeff Volek, Ph.D., R.D., a professor of human sciences at Ohio State University. When the majority of your diet is made up of of carbs and protein, ketogenesis slows. Replacing carbs and protein with fat will put your body into ketosis, thus ramping up ketone production. This takes about three days to induce.

More Sustained Energy: 90-120 minutes after you eat carbohydrates, your body doesn’t have readily available energy produced from the mitochondria in your cells, so you start “crashing” or lowering your energy. When you are in ketosis, your body can run off your body fat, which is an essentially limitless source of fuel. This prevents any type of crash.
I actually went on a ketogenic diet last year to see if it would help my migraines. I have a history of chronic migraines which would usually last 3 days, sometimes longer. Triptans help a lot but I don’t like having to take them. I stayed in ketosis for about 8 months and experienced a significant reduction in migraines, from feeling some type of headache (mild o r severe) almost everyday to 1 or 2x per month while in ketosis. Although I’m very healthy otherwise, I do think my migraines may have something to do with blood sugar fluctuations (despite previously eating a whole foods diet and no refined carbs), and keto totally stabilized this. I eventually came off of Keto because I’m not really a meat lover. When I came off, but remained low carb, my migraines stayed under control for the most part. When I increase carbs, they do return.
A recent systemic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the long-term effects (greater than 1 year) of dietary interventions on weight loss showed no sound evidence for recommending low-fat diets. In fact, low-carbohydrate diets led to significantly greater weight loss compared to low-fat interventions. It was observed that a carbohydrate-restricted diet is better than a low-fat diet for retaining an individual’s BMR. In other words, the quality of calories consumed may affect the number of calories burned. BMR dropped by more than 400 kcal/day on a low-fat diet when compared to a very low-carb diet.

We are brazilian, living in Brazil. My daughter, Isabel, 21y. o., born in 1996, has syndrome of deficiency of Glut1. She was diagnosed around her first year of life. At that time her baby bottle, her begining diet meal, was 50ml water plus 50ml oil plus vitamin. Since then, which means, for 20 years, she is under this diet. For almost 18 years under 4:1 proportion. At this right moment 3:1. The only problem she had since started the diet were kidney stones in 2002. Nothing else. Grateful to the diet she doesn’t take any kind of medicine to avoid seizures. Her health is perfect, no colesterol at all. We are at your will for any issues related to her health.


High levels of triglycerides in the blood are thought to be a sign of poor metabolism. Poor metabolism, or metabolic disorders, are associated with obesity, diabetes, heart disease and cancer. Often times, elevated triglycerides are a byproduct of insulin resistance. In these cases, a ketogenic diet is an excellent strategy to improve those numbers.

A recent systemic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the long-term effects (greater than 1 year) of dietary interventions on weight loss showed no sound evidence for recommending low-fat diets. In fact, low-carbohydrate diets led to significantly greater weight loss compared to low-fat interventions. It was observed that a carbohydrate-restricted diet is better than a low-fat diet for retaining an individual’s BMR. In other words, the quality of calories consumed may affect the number of calories burned. BMR dropped by more than 400 kcal/day on a low-fat diet when compared to a very low-carb diet.
“In 2010 I came face-to-face with the compelling, robust evidence for the effectiveness of the low-carb, high-fat diet to prevent and treat serious diseases like diabetes, obesity and heart disease. It contradicted everything I knew as a doctor and scientist about optimal nutrition. I have since aimed to change medical dogma and foster respectful dialogue on evidence-based nutrition, but at a brutal personal and professional cost, even though eventually vindicated. The Noakes Foundation, since 2012, has been promoting unbiased nutritional research into the effects of LCHF on all aspects of human health. The sugar-free train is bound for glory.”
Ketones are generally an efficient source of fuel for your human body. They're created the fatty acids in your liver; a consequence of the breakdown of fatty tissue. These only appear when there's a lack of glucose and sugar. Inside Atkins diet plan, you reduce the amount of glucose and sugar that may be from the bloodstream. Hence, your system produces ketones for fuel. When your system is creating ketones it is known as ketosis.
The insulin theory of obesity, in short, declares that the primary cause of obesity is higher carbohydrate diets because these diets increase insulin secretion more than any other diet. When insulin levels are high, fat storage will increase significantly and “starve” muscles and organs of energy.   This causes increased hunger and overeating that results in obesity.

A study of 39 obese adults placed on a ketogenic very low-calorie diet for 8 weeks found a mean loss of 13% of their starting weight and significant reductions in fat mass, insulin levels, blood pressure, and waist and hip circumferences. Their levels of ghrelin did not increase while they were in ketosis, which contributed to a decreased appetite. However during the 2-week period when they came off the diet, ghrelin levels and urges to eat significantly increased. [11]

The insulin theory of obesity, in short, declares that the primary cause of obesity is higher carbohydrate diets because these diets increase insulin secretion more than any other diet. When insulin levels are high, fat storage will increase significantly and “starve” muscles and organs of energy.   This causes increased hunger and overeating that results in obesity. 

The goal of the ketogenic diet is to put your body into ketosis — a state where your body burns fat instead of carbs for fuel. The diet consists of mostly fat (75% of your daily calories, in fact), with moderate consumption of protein (20%) and very few carbs (<5%).  Without access to glucose from carbs, your body doesn’t have all the highs and lows that lead to hunger pangs, energy crashes, and cravings.  The liver instead must convert fatty acids from your diet into ketones for the body and brain to use as fuel. This keeps blood sugar levels stable. Your body also sheds excess weight — fast. But that doesn’t mean it’s unhealthy or unsustainable — provided you do it the right way.
“As a reproductive endocrinologist, I have been studying nutrition and fertility for over 15 years. I advise all my patients, both women and men, to adopt a low-carb ketogenic diet both prior to pregnancy to improve their fertility and during pregnancy to improve fetal and maternal health. This way of eating has been shown repeatedly in my practice to improve all measures of health for women and men. We refer all our patients to Diet Doctor which in our opinion is the best online resource for our patients to find all the information, recipes and meal plans they need to be successful.”

Russel Wilder first used the ketogenic diet to treat epilepsy in 1921. He also coined the term "ketogenic diet." For almost a decade, the ketogenic diet enjoyed a place in the medical world as a therapeutic diet for pediatric epilepsy and was widely used until its popularity ceased with the introduction of antiepileptic agents. The resurgence of the ketogenic diet as a rapid weight loss formula is a relatively new concept the has shown to be quite effective, at least in the short run.


First, a little background: Eric Westman, MD, director of the Duke Lifestyle Medical Clinic, explained to Health in a previous interview that in order to successfully follow the keto diet, you need to eat moderate amounts of protein, reduce your carb intake, and increase fats. When you reduce your carb consumption, your body turns to stored fat as its new fuel source—a process called ketosis. To stay in ketosis, followers of the keto diet must limit their carbs to 50 grams a day, Dr. Westman says.
Implementing the diet can present difficulties for caregivers and the patient due to the time commitment involved in measuring and planning meals. Since any unplanned eating can potentially break the nutritional balance required, some people find the discipline needed to maintain the diet challenging and unpleasant. Some people terminate the diet or switch to a less demanding diet, like the modified Atkins diet or the low-glycaemic index treatment diet, because they find the difficulties too great.[42]
24. Watson N.A., Dyer K.A., Buckley J.D., Brinkworth G.D., Coates A.M., Parfitt G., Howe P.R.C., Noakes M., Dye L., Chadwick H., et al. A randomised trial comparing low-fat diets differing in carbohydrate and protein ratio, combined with regular moderate intensity exercise, on glycaemic control, cardiometabolic risk factors, food cravings, cognitive function and psychological wellbeing in adults with type 2 diabetes: Study protocol. Contemp. Clin. Trials. 2015;45:217–225. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
The transition period: In the first few weeks of the diet, you may feel like absolute crap. Scratch that, you most likely will. Your body won’t be used to using fat as its primary fuel source, leaving you with decreased performance and a lingering foggy-headed feeling. However, as your body adapts, your energy will increase. You might even find yourself feeling better than ever.
Achieving optimal ketosis hinges on finding the right balance of macronutrients (or “macros” in keto-speak); these are the elements in your diet that account for the majority of your calories, a.k.a. energy—namely, fat, protein, and carbohydrates. By the way, it’s often “net grams” of carbohydrates that are counted toward your daily intake; “net” deducts the amount of fiber in a food from its carbohydrate total.
A: The amount of weight you lose is entirely dependent on you. Obviously adding exercise to your regimen will speed up your weight loss. Cutting out things that are common “stall” causes is also a good thing. Artificial sweeteners, dairy, wheat products and by-products (wheat gluten, wheat flours, and anything with an identifiable wheat product in it).
But it has its share of critics as well. The keto diet is sometimes referred to as “the bacon and butter diet” because it calls for 75% of daily calories to come from fat. Keto followers are gobbling up bacon, steak, sausage, and chicken (skin and all). They’re adding butter to their morning coffee. They’re drowning their salads with ranch dressing.
There is evidence that the quality, rather than the quantity, of carbohydrate in a diet is important for health, and that high-fiber slow-digesting carbohydrate-rich foods are healthful while highly-refined and sugary foods are less so.[4] People choosing diet for health conditions should have their diet tailored to their individual requirements.[19] For people with metabolic conditions, in general a diet with approximately 40-50% high-quality carbohydrate is compatible with what is scientifically established to be a healthy diet.[19]

The targeted keto diet follows the basic ketogenic plan until right before a workout. In a traditional ketogenic diet, you focus on proteins and fats in meals. Reducing carbohydrates reduces the energy available from foods. When your body cannot get energy from food sources, it turns to fat stores. It is unclear why this diet helps children with epilepsy, but for those who want to lose weight, the benefit is obvious. You burn off body fat on a ketogenic plan.
The importance of dietary CHO is so well ingrained that the concept is taken for granted. In fact, basic macronutrient guidelines are predicated upon the idea that the central nervous system (CNS) requires a minimum of ~130 grams (~520 kcal) per day to function properly (i.e., to maintain optimal cognitive function). As a result, the minimum recommended daily intake of CHO reflects this idea (7). Similarly, most contemporary texts on sports nutrition emphasize the outsized role of CHO in optimizing both athletic performance and recovery (9). Frequently referred to as the “master fuel,” recommendations range from 3 – 12 grams per kilogram of bodyweight, per day. As an example, the recommended daily intake for a 180-lb athlete would be 246 – 982 grams, with a caloric equivalent of 984 – 3,928 calories. In marked contrast, the KD would recommend a maximum of just 50 grams (~ 200 calories) per day for the same individual.
Muscular strength was measured with a Jamar handgrip dynamometer (Lafayette Instruments, Lafayette, IN). After a brief demonstration and verbal instructions, the test was performed in the standing position with the wrist in the neutral position and the elbow flexed to 90 degrees. Patients were given verbal encouragement to squeeze as hard as possible and to apply maximal effort for at least 3 seconds. Two trials were allowed in the dominant limb, and the highest score was recorded as peak grip strength (kg). Considering possible influences on the muscular strength of changes in body composition, handgrip strength (HG) was divided by appendicular lean mass (ALM) determined by DXA (HG/ALM) and by appendicular soft lean mass (ASLM) determined by MF-BIA (HG/ASLM).
Eating a keto diet can have some short-term health perks. But in the long run, it also has the potential to create some serious health problems. That’s why many experts say you shouldn’t attempt it on your own. “In general, if a person follows a ketogenic diet, they should only do so for a brief time and under close medical supervision,” says Hultin.
“After struggling with weight my entire life, I was pointed in the direction of a low-carb diet by a group of other physicians — and it changed my life. As a family physician, it became clear to me how many of my patients could benefit from this lifestyle in so many ways. I spent time training with other doctors who had been practicing nutritional medicine with their patients for years, and learned how best to help my own patients. This is my passion, and being able to help change patients lives in this way is incredibly rewarding.”

It seems obvious that the type of food consumed can affect energy expenditure and fat loss. Staying away from processed foods made with refined starches and added sugar is, “the road map to reducing the obesity epidemic in the United States,” said Dr. Dariush Mozaffarian, a cardiologist and dean of the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University.

“I first began recommending a low-carbohydrate approach to diet and lifestyle in 2017 after discovering personal success with this way of eating. Since then, I’ve helped many patients adopt a LCHF diet and seen substantial clinical improvements — particularly with insulin resistance and diabetes — with this approach. Eating whole, nutritious food is good for everyone and results in the remission of disease and restoration of both physical and mental health.”

In this study, the effects on body composition and muscle strength induced by a VLCK diet (PNK Method) in obese patients during an intervention period of up to 4 months was determined. This work assessed body composition during and after severe weight loss by using 3 different, highly sophisticated, and widely validated techniques (DXA, MF-BIA, and ADP), which allowed an accurate evaluation of the body changes during dieting. The main findings of the present work were: (1) there was significant weight loss throughout the entire study, which was mostly explained by reductions in total FM and visceral fat tissue; (2) there was a mild initial loss of FFM followed by a partial subsequent recovery of FFM, which was principally a result of changes in body water; (3) adequate muscle strength was preserved during the course of the diet; and (4) the less expensive and more convenient technique of MF-BIA showed an acceptable agreement with DXA in estimating body composition.
The most common and relatively minor short-term side effects of ketogenic diet include a collection of symptoms like nausea, vomiting, headache, fatigue, dizziness, insomnia, difficulty in exercise tolerance, and constipation, sometimes referred to as keto flu. These symptoms resolve in a few days to few weeks. Ensuring adequate fluid and electrolyte intake can help counter some of these symptoms. Long-term adverse effects include hepatic steatosis, hypoproteinemia, kidney stones, and vitamin and mineral deficiencies.
“I have personally followed a low-carb, keto diet for over 20 years for my own health, and have used it for over 15 years with patients, primarily for weight loss. Recently, I have found the medical version of the ketogenic diet to have antipsychotic effects and mood benefits in patients with chronic mental illness, so I am pioneering the clinical use of the ketogenic diet in psychiatry. I often recommend Diet Doctor to patients, friends, and family as a trustworthy resource for weight loss versions of the diet. For the treatment of serious mental illness, I recommend working with a trained clinician.”

Initially, 23 participants were recruited into the study, but 3 dropped out voluntarily during the first week of the intervention for reasons unrelated to diet, and therefore were excluded from analysis. The 20 patients who completed the study exhibited the following baseline characteristics: mean age, 47.2 ± 10.2 years; BMI, 35.5 ± 4.4; and waist circumference, 109.4 ± 12.8 cm; 12 (60%) were women (Supplemental Table 1). Other baseline characteristics and their corresponding changes during the study are presented in Table 1. 

“I really believe that the more informed you are about the benefits of a healthy bite versus the chain reaction that you’re going to put into effect in your body when you take that bite — you just suddenly don’t want to make that choice for yourself anymore. It’s beyond willpower at that point; it’s become a desire to do something good for yourself.” — Christie Brinkley
Essentially, the keto diet for beginners works by “tricking” the body into acting as if its fasting (while reaping intermittent fasting benefits), through a strict elimination of glucose that is found in carbohydrate foods. Today the standard keto diet goes by several different names, including the “low-carbohydrate” or “very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet”(LCKD or VLCKD for short).
Ketogenesis results in the production of ketone bodies, a product of fatty acid catabolism performed primarily by the liver, in the absence of adequate CHO availability. Three primary ketone bodies are produced; acetone, acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate. Even though trace amounts of ketones are always present in the blood, it is only during periods of inadequate CHO availability that significant ketone production will occur. This accumulation of ketone bodies in the blood is commonly referred to as ketosis.
The PSQI questionnaire is a clinical sleep-behavior questionnaire that has been validated for use in patients with insomnia, cancer, Parkinson’s disease, and the general population [30]. The questionnaire is designed to assess indexes of sleep during the preceding month and contains 19 questions that use Likert scales from 0–3. All questions are categorized into the following 7 subvariables: duration of sleep, sleep disturbance, sleep latency, day dysfunction because of sleepiness, sleep efficiency, subjective sleep quality, and use of a sleeping medication. Each of these 7 variables is scored between 0 and 3 arbitrary units (au), which generates a summed total score of 0–21 au. This total score is termed the global sleep score (GSS) with >5 au associated with a poor sleep condition and ≤5 au associated with a good sleep condition.
Ariel Warren is a Registered Dietitian, Diabetes Educator, graduate from Brigham Young, and was diagnosed with Type 1 at the age of 4 years old. Ariel understands diabetes and enjoys working with clients to improve their blood sugar management, healthy eating, weight loss, fitness, and pregnancy. For coaching from a T1D Dietitian, you can contact Ariel directly, through her website: arielwarren.com.
You’re very welcome, Judy! I’m glad it’s helpful. If you are keto (as opposed to low carb), unfortunately peaches would not allow you to stay in ketosis. You can check my keto food list to help determine what is keto friendly. Of course, there are worse things than fresh fruit 🙂 but in the end our bodies still see the sugar. That being said, it doesn’t mean you sabotaged the whole day. Just pick up again – you got this!! (And for next time, try some fresh berries in moderation when you’re craving fruit.)
Thank you, Dr. Jockers. I really appreciate your reply. I was wondering if insulin resistance would make my cholesterol go up on the ketogenic diet from a total of 220 before I went on it to 378 after being on it for six months. I have always been in a healthy weight range for my height, but I have always been extremely hungry most of the time. I really got on the ketogenic diet hoping that this would be regulated after being on it for some time, but it hasn’t helped that much. Would this signify that insulin resistance may be the culprit for my sudden rise in cholesterol even though I am following the ketogenic diet perfectly?
It’s no secret that carbs—especially refined ones like sugary cereals, white bread and pasta, or sweet drinks—cause your blood sugar to spike and dip. So it makes sense that eating less of them can help keep things nice and even. For healthy people, this can translate to more steady energy, less brain fog, and fewer sugary cravings, Mancinelli explains.

It was recently reported that the consumption of diets with low percentages of carbohydrates over a long period of time (>25 years) are associated with higher mortality [63]. This association was mitigated when the substitutions were plant-based [63]. In the current study, patients were exposed to a low carbohydrate intake during less than 90 days and the source of carbohydrate was from vegetables. Moreover, the strong weight loss induced a decrease in the burden of obesity-related disease [6]. Thus, the strength of the current study is reinforced with the consistence of the results with that of previous research, regardless of the strong dietary energy restrictions induced by a VLCK diet.

A review of 13 randomized controlled trials (1,415 patients) found that people on the ketogenic diet lost significantly more weight than people on low-fat diets. They also kept the weight off for 12 months or more.9 While the diets in these studies contained no more than 50 grams of carbohydrate (a typical keto diet plan), low-carb diets with more generous amounts of carbohydrate (≥ 120 gm/day) showed similar results (more weight loss with low-carb than low-fat) in a review of 17 randomized controlled trials.10 More recently, type 2 diabetics lost 12% of their body weight after one year in diet-induced ketosis.11


Because people with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, there’s a specific concern that the saturated fat in the diet may drive up LDL, or “bad,” cholesterol levels, and further increase the odds of heart problems. If you have type 2 diabetes, talk to your doctor before attempting a ketogenic diet. They may recommend a different weight-loss diet for you, like a reduced-calorie diet, to manage diabetes. Those with epilepsy should also consult their doctor before using this as part of their treatment plan.
Many people choose ketoproof coffee or tea in the morning to ramp up energy with added fats. While it is a great thing, it’s also important to consume flavored beverages in moderation. This is amplified when it comes to caffeine as too much will lead to weight loss stalls; try to limit yourself to a maximum of 2 cups of caffeinated beverages a day.
“I am a family physician and co-author of the book The Diabetes Diet. I have been advocating a low-carb diet for patients for the last 16 years — for weight loss weight, cardiac risk reduction, and better blood sugar control in type 1 and 2 diabetes. The diet enables patients with type 1 diabetes to reduce their insulin needs, while patients with type 2 diabetes on insulin may be able to eliminate the drug completely. I leave the choice as to whether the diet needs to be ketogenic or not up to patients, depending on their motivation and goals.”
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder, and it affects women of reproductive age. Symptoms include obesity, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. A pilot study took 11 women through 24 weeks of a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (20 grams or less per day). Among the five who completed the study, they lost 12 percent of their weight on average and reduced fasting insulin by 54 percent. Additionally, two women who previously experienced infertility problems became pregnant. (6)
In general, people on ketogenic diets tend to consume a lot of foods high in monounsaturated and saturated fats such as olive oil, butter (often butter from grass-fed cows is recommended), avocado, and cheeses. The high oleic types of safflower and sunflower oils (but not the regular forms of these oils) are also good choices, as they are high in monounsaturated fats and low in polyunsaturated fats.
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Seckold R, Fisher E, de Bock M, King BR, Smart CE (October 2018). "The ups and downs of low-carbohydrate diets in the management of Type 1 diabetes: a review of clinical outcomes". Diabet. Med. (Review). doi:10.1111/dme.13845. PMID 30362180. Low‐carbohydrate diets are of interest for improving glycaemic outcomes in the management of Type 1 diabetes. There is limited evidence to support their routine use in the management of Type 1 diabetes.
“As a pediatrician practicing for the past 24 years, I spend most of my clinical time caring for children with chronic behavioral, developmental, psychological or metabolic conditions (ADHD, depression, anxiety, OCD, Tourette’s Syndrome, autism, autoimmune disease, obesity, NAFLD, etc.). A well-planned, low-carbohydrate (and in many cases ketogenic) nutrition plan is a very powerful tool that I use with my patients to address both physical and mental health. I so appreciate Diet Doctor and reference it frequently for my patients as the best resource for this topic. This site is commercial free, well-supported, referenced and frequently updated.”
10 pound weight loss , chicken broth works to relieve . But have to be careful of salt intake . I retain fluid, Dr gave script for dieuretic before I even started Keto . I have had the retention problem for a long time , when I took the dieuretic on a normal high carb diet ( I would drop 4 lbs ) but would make me really tired , afraid if I take it now on Keto I will pass out. Any idea what I should try other than the chicken broth
“The totality of evidence is very clear: A low-carbohydrate dietary approach is the most effective way to manage the insulin resistance syndrome which is that single biggest driver of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Diet Doctor has been instrumental in providing extremely useful, clear and educational material to all who want to implement this dietary approach in to their lives. That’s why I recommend the website to all my at-risk patients.”
The results of the Bland-Altman approach in regard to the FM% are shown in Fig. 4. MF-BIA underestimates the FM% during all visits, although with increasing body fat there is a trend toward better agreement [Fig. 4(A)]. This negative slope was significant in visits C2 (P = 0.015), C3 (P = 0.003), and C4 (P = 0.005). Importantly, MF-BIA had a consistent variability of about 5% in determining FM% when compared with DXA. However, the concordance between DXA and ADP is shown in Fig. 4(B). In visits C1 (P = 0.005), C2 (P = 0.010), and C3 (P = 0.004) significant negative slopes were observed, indicating underestimation of ADP at lower levels of FM%, but ADP seemed to overestimate FM% with increasing body fat. During visit C-4, a similar pattern was observed, although the slope did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.093). During all visits there was a high variability in the FM% determined by ADP, reaching values of up to 20% in comparison with DXA.
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