What about fruits and vegetables? All fruits are rich in carbs, but you can have certain fruits (usually berries) in small portions. Vegetables (also rich in carbs) are restricted to leafy greens (such as kale, Swiss chard, spinach), cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, asparagus, bell peppers, onions, garlic, mushrooms, cucumber, celery, and summer squashes. A cup of chopped broccoli has about six carbs.

Ariel Warren is a Registered Dietitian, Diabetes Educator, graduate from Brigham Young, and was diagnosed with Type 1 at the age of 4 years old. Ariel understands diabetes and enjoys working with clients to improve their blood sugar management, healthy eating, weight loss, fitness, and pregnancy. For coaching from a T1D Dietitian, you can contact Ariel directly, through her website: arielwarren.com.
Carbohydrates are your body's favorite fuel source; it breaks them down into glucose. Without a steady intake of carbohydrates, your body turns to using protein for fuel. But if you also are limiting how much protein you eat, your body is forced to burn stored fat as its primary source of fuel. That can result in weight loss, and ketones are a byproduct of burning fat.

A popular keto supplement are exogenous ketones (popularly called “keto diet pills”) that may help you achieve results earlier as well as remain in that state. (Don’t confuse exogenous ketones with raspberry ketones, as the latter don’t raise ketone levels in the body or mimic endogenous ketones, so you wouldn’t use raspberry ketones in your regimen.)


Thankyou for the breakdown! I’m quite excited to get started. I’m a T1 newly diagnosed (6m) and the hospital educator had me eating 30gm Carbs per meal which saw me a) Nearly vomit every meal as it was too much food b) gain a ridiculous amount of weight! (never really been a big carb eater, but my issue was not eating frequently!) (15+kg gained!) so bring on 2019 with a better relationship with food and a better relationship with myself, knowing how and what works with for my body. blessings xx😘
Plagued by pimples? You may start to notice a difference in your skin on the keto diet, especially if you were a former sugar addict. Consuming lots of empty carbs is linked to worse acne—in part because these foods trigger inflammation and signal the release of hormones that up the production of pore-clogging oils, according to a review published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Some findings suggest that curbing your carb intake could help solve these problems, improving your skin as a result.
^ Schwingshackl L, Chaimani A, Schwedhelm C, Toledo E, Pünsch M, Hoffmann G, et al. (2018). "Comparative effects of different dietary approaches on blood pressure in hypertensive and pre-hypertensive patients: A systematic review and network meta-analysis". Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr (Systematic Review): 1–14. doi:10.1080/10408398.2018.1463967. PMID 29718689.
“I recommend low-carbohydrate, high-fat (ketogenic) diets to almost all my patients to improve their quality of life. The LCHF diet reduces inflammation, promotes weight loss, and improves blood biomarkers without prescription agents. The result is improved sleep, sharper mental clarity, more energy throughout the day, and healthier relationships to food. Most patients suffer “fat phobia” but fat does not make you fat! Sugar does! We teach patients to eat lots of healthy fats and cycle in and out of ketosis. We refer everyone to Diet Doctor as a great resource, especially for the carb contents of various food and drinks.”
More Sustained Energy: 90-120 minutes after you eat carbohydrates, your body doesn’t have readily available energy produced from the mitochondria in your cells, so you start “crashing” or lowering your energy. When you are in ketosis, your body can run off your body fat, which is an essentially limitless source of fuel. This prevents any type of crash.
The data are presented as mean (standard deviation). All statistical analyses were carried out using Stata statistical software, version 12.0 (Stata, College Station, TX). A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Changes in the different variables of interest from baseline and throughout the study visits were analyzed following a repeated measures design. A repeated measures analysis of variance test was used to evaluate differences between different measurement times, followed by post hoc analysis with Tukey’s adjustment for multiple comparisons. In addition, linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the accuracy of MF-BIA and ADP in comparison with DXA, because DXA is considered the reference technique in the estimation of body composition in clinical research (26). Finally, the Bland-Altman approach was also used to assess the accuracy of MF-BIA and ADP against DXA in the estimation of FM%.
Now, Week 1’s shopping list is going to be long. I have to make the assumption you have nothing in your house. Many of the items are common items that most people will have already. These are all staples in my everyday cooking for keto, and should be considered an investment for your health. Once you have all of the items from week 1, there won’t be too much else to buy.
"The keto diet is primarily used to help reduce the frequency of epileptic seizures in children. While it also has been tried for weight loss, only short-term results have been studied, and the results have been mixed. We don't know if it works in the long term, nor whether it's safe," warns registered dietitian Kathy McManus, director of the Department of Nutrition at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women's Hospital.
When following a low carbohydrate diet, for the first few days, there is an adaptation period during which most people report feeling run-down or tired. Some people report feeling irritable, out of sorts, and unable to make decisions. For most people, these feelings disappear after the adaptation period, however, and are replaced with feelings of calm and balance and more consistent energy.[1]
“As a full-spectrum family physician since 2004, luckily I stumbled on the wonderful low-carb community two years ago after my amazing wife was forced to make dietary changes after surgery. I’ve never looked back! After transforming my own health, with help from resources like Diet Doctor, Jimmy Moore, and Dr. Jason Fung, I’ve committed to bettering the lives of my patients with intensive dietary management through LCHF and intermittent fasting. Empowering patients to make these lifestyle changes has truly brought back the joy of medicine for me. I am so thankful to all who have inspired me along the way.” 

This message was posted back in 2017 by Mattie, I do not see a response to it as I have the same question. Basically, why do I have to eat so much fat if I have plenty of fat on me that I want to be used for energy during this weight loss process? How do I know when to limit the amount of fat I’m eating so that the fat I already have will be used for energy? Please email me with an answer as I really do need to know.

Aude, Y., A. S, Agatston, F. Lopez-Jimenez, et al. “The National Cholesterol Education Program Diet vs a Diet Lower in Carbohydrates and Higher in Protein and Monounsaturated Fat: A Randomized Trial.” JAMA Internal Medicine 164, no. 19 (2004): 2141–46. doi: 10.1001/archinte.164.19.2141. jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/article-abstract/217514.

The data are presented as mean (standard deviation). All statistical analyses were carried out using Stata statistical software, version 12.0 (Stata, College Station, TX). A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Changes in the different variables of interest from baseline and throughout the study visits were analyzed following a repeated measures design. A repeated measures analysis of variance test was used to evaluate differences between different measurement times, followed by post hoc analysis with Tukey’s adjustment for multiple comparisons. In addition, linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the accuracy of MF-BIA and ADP in comparison with DXA, because DXA is considered the reference technique in the estimation of body composition in clinical research (26). Finally, the Bland-Altman approach was also used to assess the accuracy of MF-BIA and ADP against DXA in the estimation of FM%.

A systematic review in 2018 looked at 16 studies on the ketogenic diet in adults. It concluded that the treatment was becoming more popular for that group of patients, that the efficacy in adults was similar to children, the side effects relatively mild. However, many patients gave up with the diet, for various reasons, and the quality of evidence was inferior to studies on children. Health issues include high levels of low-density lipoprotein, high total cholesterol, and weight loss.[24]
I wanted to put it out there that I made this meal plan specifically with women in mind. I took an average of about 150 women and what their macros were. The end result was 1600 calories – broken down into 136g of fat, 74g of protein, and 20g net carbs a day. This is all built around a sedentary lifestyle, like most of us live. If you need to increase or decrease calories, you will need to do that on your own terms.
HDL is still low and stuck on 45 even after hoping strongly with more healthy saturated fats organic bone broth from lamb bones, etc. LDL way up 170 and triglycerides a a record high of 170, Non HDL choleseterol at 203. Kinda surprizd I cannot more that HDL number aftyer all the keto stuff. And unsure why the LDL has exploded since stress has always been with me these last 9 years.
The results of the Bland-Altman approach in regard to the FM% are shown in Fig. 4. MF-BIA underestimates the FM% during all visits, although with increasing body fat there is a trend toward better agreement [Fig. 4(A)]. This negative slope was significant in visits C2 (P = 0.015), C3 (P = 0.003), and C4 (P = 0.005). Importantly, MF-BIA had a consistent variability of about 5% in determining FM% when compared with DXA. However, the concordance between DXA and ADP is shown in Fig. 4(B). In visits C1 (P = 0.005), C2 (P = 0.010), and C3 (P = 0.004) significant negative slopes were observed, indicating underestimation of ADP at lower levels of FM%, but ADP seemed to overestimate FM% with increasing body fat. During visit C-4, a similar pattern was observed, although the slope did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.093). During all visits there was a high variability in the FM% determined by ADP, reaching values of up to 20% in comparison with DXA.
I also asked a friend to join me as an accountability partner. She had tried the keto diet before with good success, so having a guide for my myriad questions was a big help. It was also nice to have someone to message at 10 p.m. when I really wanted a cookie so she could commiserate with me. (We agreed the cookie would be delicious, and then ate a cheese stick.)
But what about body fat? Hall and Guo investigated 20 controlled feeding studies that reported changes in body fatness on equal-calorie diets differing in fat and carbohydrate content. They found that each diet has similar effects on body fatness, which makes sense when you consider the finding that neither diet provides a significant metabolic advantage.   (Yet higher-carbohydrate diets seem to cause a slightly more substantial loss of body fat per calorie — a 16 gram per day difference.)
“Our medical practice was featured implementing a low-carbohydrate plan for a patient with type 2 diabetes in the documentary The Magic Pill. We believe food can be used as medicine. Many of our patients with insulin resistance, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, PCOS and more will see excellent results and resolution of chronic disease states with low-carbohydrate diets. Education and understanding as to which dietary strategy is best for the individual is essential in reclaiming one’s health. There is no doubt in my mind that low-carbohydrate planning can be extremely useful and safe for the appropriate clinical scenario.”
Eat fats with all your meals. Fats are the cornerstone of the ketogenic diet, and will encourage your body to burn fatty ketones for fuel. Typically, calories from fat should comprise 80 – 90% of your meals.[10] (However, you cannot eat unlimited fats on a ketogenic diet; the calories can still add up and cause weight gain.[11]) Examples of fatty foods include:
The ketosis produced by fasting or limiting carbohydrate intake does not have negative effects for most people once the body has adapted to that state. The ketosis caused by diet has been referred to as dietary ketosis, physiological ketosis, benign dietary ketosis (Atkins), and, most recently, nutritional ketosis (Phinney and Volek), in an attempt to clear up possible confusion with diabetic ketoacidosis.
Adequate food records were available for analysis in a proportion of participants at each of the 4 timepoints (Table ​(Table2).2). Participants completed food records at a mean of 2.5 and a median of 3 timepoints. In general, comparing baseline to subsequent timepoints, mean carbohydrate intake decreased substantially and energy intake decreased moderately while protein and fat intake remained fairly constant.
–Make healthy breakfast fun with these little low carb blueberry pancake dippers. They're easy enough to make on a weekday morning! This post is sponsored by Wyman's. Do you get into a breakfast rut? You wake up, wander to the kitchen, grab a cup of coffee and think...same old same old. You could have eggs...again. Or you could have a low carb muffin...again. Maybe you have some low carb bread on hand for toast...again. Whatever your breakfast routine, you're sick of it and you want something different. Yep, this happens in my house too, with relative frequency.All Day I Dream About Food
Thanks for this inputs. 20 years ago I gain 17 pounds a year for 5 years. I was healthy but my dr told me start diet, any diet just come back in a month I want to see you start loosing… I started Atkins and lost 7 pound in a month. She was checking my progress every six months and checking my condition. I lost 64 pounds in 3 years. Now I started eating out of control. I am eating healthy but too much… I gain 40 pound back after 20 years. Now I will start again my Atkins to take off 30 pounds…
There is evidence that the quality, rather than the quantity, of carbohydrate in a diet is important for health, and that high-fiber slow-digesting carbohydrate-rich foods are healthful while highly-refined and sugary foods are less so.[4] People choosing diet for health conditions should have their diet tailored to their individual requirements.[19] For people with metabolic conditions, in general a diet with approximately 40-50% high-quality carbohydrate is compatible with what is scientifically established to be a healthy diet.[19]

Fats: When it comes to types of fat to consume, anything goes. It’s recommended that you consume a mixture of saturated and monounsaturated fats. Things like coconut oil, which contains medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) help keep ketone levels high. So long as you’re keeping your carbs in check, if you want to go as far as swigging bacon grease to get your fat in, you won’t be the first.
Keto diets are high in healthy fats and protein also tend to be very filling, which can help reduce overeating of empty calories, sweets and junk foods. (4) For most people eating a healthy low-carb diet, it’s easy to consume an appropriate amount of calories, but not too many, since things like sugary drinks, cookies, bread, cereals, ice cream or other desserts and snack bars are off-limits.
Calculate your “macronutrients.” Macronutrients are nutrients which your body needs in large quantities, and they provide energy in the form of calories. Calculating your macronutrient intake will let you see the current levels of your fat consumption. With this information, you can decide how to reduce your carb and protein consumption, and increase your fat consumption.
If this all sounds like way too much work, consider intermittent fasting. It is a simpler way to achieve cyclic ketosis and has many of the same benefits. Anecdotally, it has worked better for me for weight loss than nutritional ketosis, and has many of the same health benefits. I prefer a 16/8 or 18/6 protocol, where you confine your eating (with no change in calories) to a 6- to 8-hour window, then fast overnight. For instance, I finish eating by 6 p.m., then eat again at noon the next day. For weight loss, I recommend following this protocol two to seven days per week. [Stay tuned for more on goop.]
Y. Wady Aude, MD; Arthur S. Agatston, MD; Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, MD, MSc; Eric H. Lieberman, MD; Marie Almon, MS, RD; Melinda Hansen, ARNP; Gerardo Rojas, MD; Gervasio A. Lamas, MD; Charles H. Hennekens, MD, DrPH, “The National Cholesterol Education Program Diet vs a Diet Lower in Carbohydrates and Higher in Protein and Monounsaturated Fat,” Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(19):2141-2146. http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=217514.
Children who discontinue the diet after achieving seizure freedom have about a 20% risk of seizures returning. The length of time until recurrence is highly variable, but averages two years. This risk of recurrence compares with 10% for resective surgery (where part of the brain is removed) and 30–50% for anticonvulsant therapy. Of those who have a recurrence, just over half can regain freedom from seizures either with anticonvulsants or by returning to the ketogenic diet. Recurrence is more likely if, despite seizure freedom, an electroencephalogram shows epileptiform spikes, which indicate epileptic activity in the brain but are below the level that will cause a seizure. Recurrence is also likely if an MRI scan shows focal abnormalities (for example, as in children with tuberous sclerosis). Such children may remain on the diet longer than average, and children with tuberous sclerosis who achieve seizure freedom could remain on the ketogenic diet indefinitely.[46]
If you choose to make your sauces and gravies, you should consider investing in guar or xanthan gum. It’s a thickener that’s well known in modern cooking techniques and lends a hand to low carb by thickening otherwise watery sauces. Luckily there are many sauces to choose from that are high fat and low carb. If you’re in need of a sauce then consider making a beurre blanc, hollandaise or simply brown butter to top meats with.
There are so many tricks, shortcuts, and gimmicks out there on achieving optimal ketosis – I’d suggest you don’t bother with any of that. Optimal ketosis can be accomplished through dietary nutrition alone (aka just eating food). You shouldn’t need a magic pill to do it. Just stay strict, remain vigilant, and be focused on recording what you eat (to make sure your carb and protein intake are correct).

Because visceral fat is physiologically and clinically more relevant than total FM, special emphasis was placed on its analysis. The VLCK diet led to a significant reduction in visceral fat that can be seen in assessment by either new DXA software (−1.2 ± 0.7 kg) or by MF-BIA [−60.8 ± 20.7 cm2; Fig. 2(B) and 2(C)]. Therefore, when evaluated by different methods, the VLCK diet induced a significant body weight reduction by targeting total FM and visceral FM [Fig. 2(A–C)].


“I started a low-carb, high-fat diet for myself in an attempt to treat my own health problems. Since then, I have seen significant health benefits not only in myself but also in many of my patients using a LCHF/ketogenic approach. Diet Doctor gives a simple but very effective evidence-based resource that I confidently recommend to all my patients. And the recipes are great!”
Clinical improvement was observed in Alzheimer’s patients fed a ketogenic diet, and this was marked by improved mitochondrial function. (15) In fact, a European Journal of Clinical Nutrition study pointed to emerging data that suggested the therapeutic use of ketogenic diets for multiple neurological disorders beyond epilepsy and Alzheimer’s, including headaches, neurotrauma, Parkinson’s disease, sleep disorders, brain cancer, autism and multiple sclerosis. (16)
“After a decade of watching patients with chronic disease get sicker with traditional medical advice, discovering the effectiveness of low-carb was a breath of fresh air! My practice now focuses entirely on patients wishing to follow low-carbohydrate and ketogenic diet treatment for diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea, and other weight-related concerns. I also use ketogenic diets for the treatment of weight-loss surgery patients who regain weight. Diet Doctor is a terrific resource for patients and for the medical students I teach in my Obesity Medicine clerkship; it has nutritionally and scientifically sound information on ketogenic lifestyles and great recipes.”
“As a family doctor in India, I recommend low-carb and keto diets, with and without intermittent fasting, to all of my patients who have lifestyle-related chronic conditions. I follow the growing, evidence-based science behind these approaches and I have seen the impressive clinical results. I, too, follow a low carb lifestyle and usually do it with intermittent fasting. I have been able to reverse my diabesity and keep my post-menopausal symptoms at bay. I also recommend to my patients that they visit the Diet Doctor website to find trustworthy information and delicious recipes.”
“I started a low-carb, high-fat diet for myself in an attempt to treat my own health problems. Since then, I have seen significant health benefits not only in myself but also in many of my patients using a LCHF/ketogenic approach. Diet Doctor gives a simple but very effective evidence-based resource that I confidently recommend to all my patients. And the recipes are great!”

Many unhealthy foods easily meet keto’s low-carb, high-fat criteria. However, that doesn’t mean you can or should eat them freely. “A huge benefit to following the keto diet is that the vast majority of processed food is removed with the removal of grains,” Santo says. “Unfortunately, poor-quality dairy, meat, and veggies may fill the gap.” Look for healthier sources of protein and fat, such as grass-fed meats, and limit processed dairy (think cheese singles) as much as possible.
I prescribe nutritional ketosis for my patients with brain and focus issues, such as: epilepsy, attention deficit, brain fog, traumatic brain injury, memory issues, mild cognitive impairment, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease (including patients with one or two copies of the genes for Alzheimer’s, called ApoE4). Most of my patients on keto say they feel smarter, sharper, and more focused—and some may lose weight (fat) as a result of using ketones as fuel.
Doing a 1:1 substitution would probably change the macros too much but that doesn’t mean that you have to eat dairy to eat a ketogenic diet. If you want to use the meal plan you’d have to adjust it with other sources of fat so that you match the macros. It will require a little work (I recommend using an online diary like MyFitnessPal for support) but you’ll end up with a plan that works for you and your needs
At 469 pounds I restricted myself to a daily calorie intake between 1k-1.5k a day. Often I would even go down to 800 (not advocating this!). Well, i'm still alive today, down a ton of weight and I restrict myself to about 1.5-2k per day now. As others said, calorie restriction is required to lose, but generally speaking I just go by how I feel. If im full of energy, feeling great and not hitting my calories it's not really a big deal to me.
Various mechanisms may explain the variations in body water. For example, glycogen depletion induced by VLCK diets could cause a marked increase in diuresis, given that glycogen is usually stored together with water (39, 40). Water loss might also be associated with ketonuria, because ketone bodies increase the renal sodium and water loss as a result (39, 41). These assumptions seem reasonable considering that the peak water loss coincides with the phase of maximum ketosis. However, the mechanisms explaining the diuresis observed with VLCK and with most hypocaloric diets are not known at present (30). Contrary to previous observations (42, 43), DXA analysis evidenced a maintenance in bone mineral density in the current study.
On the ketogenic diet, you will find a lot of recipes that call for almond flour and flax meal, which are healthy low-carb flour alternatives. Make sure, however, that you are aware of how much of these low-carb flours you are using. An over-reliance on these nut and seed flours can unknowingly cause you to consume too many calories, carbs, and inflammatory fats.
On a second note, some individuals find they like to eat a little fruit along with protein before their final workout on Friday night as this will help restore their liver glycogen levels and give them the energy they need to push through that workout. Plus, by refilling the liver glycogen you will help put your body into a slightly more anabolic state so you don't see as much energy breakdown.
Various mechanisms may explain the variations in body water. For example, glycogen depletion induced by VLCK diets could cause a marked increase in diuresis, given that glycogen is usually stored together with water (39, 40). Water loss might also be associated with ketonuria, because ketone bodies increase the renal sodium and water loss as a result (39, 41). These assumptions seem reasonable considering that the peak water loss coincides with the phase of maximum ketosis. However, the mechanisms explaining the diuresis observed with VLCK and with most hypocaloric diets are not known at present (30). Contrary to previous observations (42, 43), DXA analysis evidenced a maintenance in bone mineral density in the current study.
Carbohydrate-restricted diets can be as effective, or marginally more effective, than low-fat diets in helping achieve weight loss in the short term.[6] In the long term, effective weight maintenance depends on calorie restriction, not the ratio of macronutrients in a diet.[7] The hypothesis proposed by diet advocates that carbohydrate causes undue fat accumulation via the medium of insulin, and that low-carbohydrate diets have a "metabolic advantage", has been falsified by experiment.[8][6]
1st Tippy Tale is now live!📚My 31-Day Keto Diet Transformation! (Link in bio) Truth: The last few months of 2017 was rough for me. With so many life changes happening, I found myself at the corner of mental and physical exhaustion. Bottling so much inside, I let my stress take the best of me. I started to neglect my health in ways I haven’t done in years. I desperately needed positive change. I desperately needed myself back... . . I talk about the horrible side effects that happened to me during those 3 months of neglect and my 31-day Keto diet journey to reset my lifestyle. You can watch my YouTube video (link in bio) or read my blog post on my website (tippytales.com) for details on the Keto diet, how I went about doing it, my honest opinion, my results, my current status 2 months post my reset and if I am making it a lifestyle.🤔☺️ . . Putting yourself out there and showing a before and after picture is scary for a lot of people. I am no different to this thought but I needed to share this. Why? Quite frankly because I am proud and I know how hard I worked to get myself back. Although my aesthetics did change, I know the bigger change is within. I can full heartedly say I love my body and the woman I’ve become from this fight to get myself back. If this inspires one person to believe in themselves a little more today than yesterday then these series of awkward poses served its purpose.😜 . . We are all human and some times we have setbacks in life. I believe setbacks are there for a reason..to test us. To test how bad we truly and deeply want it. Besides, what’s a good story without a killer comeback?! Not a good one in my humble opinion.😉 #TippyTales 📚
Participants were recruited from the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) outpatient clinics. Inclusion criteria were age 35–75 years; body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2; and fasting serum glucose >125 mg/dL or hemoglobin A1c >6.5% without medications, or treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA) and/or insulin. Exclusion criteria were evidence of renal insufficiency, liver disease, or unstable cardiovascular disease by history, physical examination, and laboratory tests. All participants provided written informed consent approved by the institutional review board. No monetary incentives were provided.
A keto diet has shown to improve triglyceride levels and cholesterol levels most associated with arterial buildup. More specifically low-carb, high-fat diets show a dramatic increase in HDL and decrease in LDL particle concentration compared to low-fat diets.3A study in the long-term effects of a ketogenic diet shows a significant reduction in cholesterol levels, body weight, and blood glucose. Read more on keto and cholesterol >

Stock up: Jet.com's new City Grocery service (available in select markets) makes it easy to ensure you always have keto-friendly veggies in the fridge. We love their delivery scheduling tool; simply fill your cart, then decide which day and timeframe you'd like your groceries delivered. One of our faves: Urban Roots Green Squash Veggie Noodles are great for whipping up low-carb "pasta" dishes.
The inclusion criteria were ages 18 to 65 years, body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2, stable body weight in the previous 3 months, a desire to lose weight, and a history of failed dietary efforts. The main exclusion criteria were diabetes mellitus, obesity induced by other endocrine disorders or by drugs, and participation in any active weight loss program in the previous 3 months. In addition, those patients with previous bariatric surgery, known or suspected abuse of narcotics or alcohol, severe depression or any other psychiatric disease, severe hepatic insufficiency, any type of renal insufficiency or gout episodes, nephrolithiasis, neoplasia, previous events of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, uncontrolled hypertension, orthostatic hypotension, and hydroelectrolytic or electrocardiographic alterations were excluded. Females who were pregnant, breastfeeding, or intending to become pregnant, and those with child-bearing potential who were not using adequate contraceptive methods, were also excluded. Apart from obesity and metabolic syndrome, participants were generally healthy individuals.

Dr. Josh Axe, DNM, DC, CNS, is a doctor of natural medicine, clinical nutritionist and author with a passion to help people get well using food as medicine. He’s the author of the books “Eat Dirt: Why Leaky Gut May Be the Root Cause of Your Health Problems,” “Essential Oils: Ancient Medicine” and the upcoming “Keto Diet: Your 30-Day Plan to Lose Weight, Balance Hormones, Boost Brain Health, and Reverse Disease” (February 2019, published by Little, Brown Spark). He’s a co-founder of Ancient Nutrition, a health company where the mission is to restore health, strength and vitality by providing history’s healthiest whole food nutrients to the modern world. 
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